Medical Research Report
The Effects of Salmon Peptides Extract in Top Therapeutics product against the Health of Cardiovascular System in Mammals

- by Dr. Marcel Gisain

Abstract

Fish protein hydrolysates have attracted much attention of food biotechnologists in recent years due to the availability of large quantities of raw materials in the fish industry waste to produce this material, and due to their high protein content with good amino acid balance and bioactive peptides (antioxidant, antihypertensive, immunomodulatory and antimicrobial peptides) (22). Some properties exhibited or expressed by bioactive peptides include antihypertensive or enzyme inhibitory properties (23) and cholesterol lowering properties (24). Biologically active roles associated with fish peptides include Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition (25). This article will review the roles of salmon peptides extract in the health of cardiovascular system. Online literature searches were performed to identify the studies about the benefits of salmon peptide extract.

Introduction

Hypertension represents one of the major independent risk factors for myocardial infarction, congestive heart failure, arteriosclerosis, stroke, and end-stage renal disease (29).

Angiotensin- I converting enzyme (ACE) plays an important role in the regulation of blood pressure and hypertension (30). Bioactive peptides usually contain 3–20 amino acid residues and their activities are based on their amino acid composition and sequence (15). These peptides are reported to be involved in various biological functions such as antihypertension, immunomodulatory, antithrombotic, antioxidant, anticancer and antimicrobial activities, in addition to nutrient utilization (15)(16).

This review article will highlight the findings of previous studies on the roles of salmon peptides extract against the health of cardiovascular system in mammals.

Function (Anti-hypertension, lowering cholesterol and triglycerides)

Bioactive peptides isolated from various fish protein hydrolysates have shown numerous bioactivities such as antihypertensive, antithrombotic (17)(18)(19), anticoagulant (20), immunomodulatory and antioxidative activities (20)(21). ACE-inhibitory peptides isolated and identified in gelatine hydrolysates derived from chum salmon cartilage (31).

Oral administration of protein hydrolysates derived from sea bream scales and salmon skins may successfully decrease blood pressure in spontaneously hypertensive rats (31) (33).

Other species/raw materials with protein hydrolysates with documented ACE‐inhibition are ‐ salmon and chum salmon (27)(28). Studies on fish peptides have demonstrated antihypertensive (1)(2)(3)(4).

Hydrolyzed proteins from fish have been demonstrated to alter the cholesterol and lipid metabolism in rodent studies, and to reduce plasma cholesterol and triglyceride levels (5)(6)(7) (8).

Kim, Choi, Park, Choi, and Moon (13) have reported that some peptides derived from fish showed antihypertensive activity inhibiting the action of angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE) even stronger than that of many other natural peptides. These peptides exhibited in vivo activities by lowering blood pressure in spontaneously hypertensive rats (14).

A class of such peptides is the angiotensin inhibitory peptides; these have the effect of reducing the rate at which the vasoconstrictor, angiotensin-II is produced and regulates hypertension (26).

In addition, previous study found a reduction in hepatic ∆5 and ∆6 desaturase mRNA expression in obese Zucker rats by a fish protein hydrolysate (FPH) diet (9).

A cholesterol lowering effect of FPH diets compared to casein diets have previously been observed in rodents, and may be due to decreased intestinal absorption concomitant with increased hepatic excretion of cholesterol and bile (10) (11).
FPH has in some rodent studies also resulted in lower plasma triacylglycerol (TAG) levels (8) (12).

Conclusion

Through multiple investigations, salmon peptide extract has shown promise as an agent of anti-hypertension, lowering blood cholesterol and reducing the triglycerides level of animal models. Its consumption may benefit in the health of cardiovascular system in pet animals contributing to longevity and mutability.

References:

  1. Hatanaka A, Miyahara H, Suzuki KI, Sato S. Isolation and identification of antihypertensive peptides from antarctic krill tail meat hydrolysate. J Food Sci. 2009;12:H116–H120. doi: 10.1111/j.1750-3841.2009.01138.x. [PubMed] [Cross Ref]
  2. Kim SK, Ngo DH, Vo TS. Marine fish-derived bioactive peptides as potential anti-hypertensive agents. Adv Food Nutr Res. 2012;12:249–260. [PubMed]
  3. Li Y, Zhou J, Huang K, Sun Y, Zeng X. Purification of a novel angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory peptide with an antihypertensive effect from loach (Misgurnus anguillicaudatus) J Agric Food Chem. 2012;12:1320–1325. doi: 10.1021/jf204118n. [PubMed] [Cross Ref]
  4. Ngo DH, Ryu B, Vo TS, Himaya SW, Wijesekara I, Kim SK. Free radical scavenging and angiotensin-I converting enzyme inhibitory peptides from Pacific cod (Gadus macrocephalus) skin gelatin. Int J Biol Macromol. 2011;12:1110–1116. doi: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2011.09.009. [PubMed] [Cross Ref]
  5. Moller NP, Scholz-Ahrens KE, Roos N, Schrezenmeir J. Bioactive peptides and proteins from foods: indication for health effects. Eur J Nutr. 2008;12:171–182. doi: 10.1007/s00394-008-0710-2. [PubMed] [Cross Ref]
  6. Rigamonti E, Parolini C, Marchesi M, Diani E, Brambilla S, Sirtori CR, Chiesa G. Hypolipidemic effect of dietary pea proteins: Impact on genes regulating hepatic lipid metabolism. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2010;12(Suppl 1):S24–S30. [PubMed]
  7. Sugiyama K, Ohkawa S, Muramatsu K. Relationship between amino acid composition of diet and plasma cholesterol level in growing rats fed a high cholesterol diet. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo) 1986;12:413–423. doi: 10.3177/jnsv.32.413. [PubMed] [Cross Ref]
  8. Shukla A, Bettzieche A, Hirche F, Brandsch C, Stangl GI, Eder K. Dietary fish protein alters blood lipid concentrations and hepatic genes involved in cholesterol homeostasis in the rat model. Br J Nutr. 2006;12:674–682. [PubMed]
  9. Wergedahl H, Liaset B, Gudbrandsen OA, Lied E, Espe M, Muna Z, Mork S, Berge RK. Fish protein hydrolysate reduces plasma total cholesterol, increases the proportion of HDL cholesterol, and lowers acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase activity in liver of Zucker rats. J Nutr. 2004;12:1320–1327. [PubMed]
  10. Hosomi R, Fukunaga K, Arai H, Kanda S, Nishiyama T, Yoshida M. Fish protein decreases serum cholesterol in rats by inhibition of cholesterol and bile acid absorption. J Food Sci. 2011;12:H116–H121. doi: 10.1111/j.1750-3841.2011.02130.x. [PubMed] [Cross Ref]
  11. Liaset B, Hao Q, Jorgensen H, Hallenborg P, Du ZY, Ma T, Marschall HU, Kruhoffer M, Li R, Li Q. et al. Nutritional regulation of bile acid metabolism is associated with improved pathological characteristics of the metabolic syndrome. J Biol Chem. 2011;12:28382–28395. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M111.234732. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [Cross Ref]
  12. Liaset B, Madsen L, Hao Q, Criales G, Mellgren G, Marschall HU, Hallenborg P, Espe M, Froyland L, Kristiansen K. Fish protein hydrolysate elevates plasma bile acids and reduces visceral adipose tissue mass in rats. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2009;12:254–262. doi: 10.1016/j.bbalip.2009.01.016. [PubMed] [Cross Ref]
  13. Kim SK, Choi YR, Park PJ, Choi JH and Moon SH. Screening of biofunctional peptides from cod processing wastes. J Kor Soc Agri Chem Biotech, 43: 225–227, (2000).
  14. Je JY, Park PJ, Kwon JY and Kim SK. A novel angiotensin I converting enzyme inhibitory peptide from Allaska Pollack (Theragra chalcogramma) frame protein hydrolysate. J Agri Food Chem, 52: 7842– 7845, (2005).
  15. Kim S.K, Wijesekara I. Development and biological activities of marine-derived bioactive peptides: A review. J Funct Foods2010; 2:1–9.
  16. Elias RJ, Kellerby SS, Decker EA. Antioxidant activity of proteins and peptides. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr2008; 48:430–441.
  17. Kim S.K, Mendis E. Bioactive compounds from marine processing byproducts-a review. Food Res Int2006; 39:383–393.
  18. Fujita H, Yoshikawa M. Lkpnm: A prodrug-type ace-inhibitory peptide derived from fish protein. Immunopharmacology1999; 44:123–127.
  19. Je J-Y, Park P-J, Kwon JY, Kim S-K. A novel angiotensin I converting enzyme inhibitory peptide from Alaska pollack (Theragra chalcogramma) frame protein hydrolysate. J Agric Food Chem 2004; 52:7842–7845.
  20. Rajapakse N, Jung W-K, Mendis E, Moon S-H, Kim S-K. A novel anticoagulant purified from fish protein hydrolysate inhibits factor xiia and platelet aggregation. Life Sci2005; 76:2607–2619.
  21. Jun S-Y, Park P-J, Jung W-K, Kim S-K. Purification and characterization of an antioxidative peptide from enzymatic hydrolysate of yellowfin sole (Limanda aspera) frame protein. Eur Food Res Technol2004; 219:20–26.
  22. Chalamaiah, M, B. Dinesh kumara,R. Hemalathab, and T. Jyothirmayic, Fish protein hydrolysates: Proximate composition, amino acid composition, antioxidant activities and applications: A review, Food Chemistry2012; 15 December 135 (4): 3020-3038.
  23. Yoshie-Stark, Y., Wada, Y., Schott, M., & Wäsche, A. (2006). Functional and bioactive properties of rapeseed protein concentrates and sensory analysis of food application with rapeseed protein concentrates. LWT – Food Science and Technology, 39(5), 503-512. doi: 10.1016/j.lwt.2005.03.006
  24. Hui, Y. H. (1992). Cholesterol and heart disease. In Y. H. Hui (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Food Science and Technology (Vol. 3, pp. 2043- 2047). New York: Wiley – Interscience publication.
  25. Nakajima, K., Yoshie-Stark, Y., & Ogushi, M. (2009). Comparison of ACE inhibitory and DPPH radical scavenging activities of fish muscle hydrolysates. Food Chemistry, 114(3), 844-851. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2008.10.083
  26. FitzGerald, R. J., Murray, B. A., & Walsh, D. J. (2004). Hypotensive Peptides
    from Milk Proteins. The Journal of Nutrition, 134(4), 980S-988S.
  27. Bordenave S, Fruitier I, Ballandier I, Sannier F, Gildberg A, Batista I and Piot J M (2002), HPLC preparation of fish waste hydrolysate fractions.
    Effect on guinea pig ileum and ACE activity’, Prep Biochem and Biotech, 31(1), 65‐77.
  28. Ono S, Hosokawa M, Miyahita K and Takahashi K (2003), ‘Isolation of peptides with Angiotensin I‐converting enzyme inhibitory effect derived from hydrolysate of upstream chum salmon muscle’, J Food Sci.68 (5), 1611–1614.
  29. Kearney, P.M.; Whelton, M.; Reynolds, K.; Muntner, P.; Whelton, P.K.; He, J. Global burden of hypertension. Lancet, 2005, 365, 217-223.
  30. Murray, B.A.; FitzGerald, R.J. Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitory peptides derived from food proteins: Biochemistry, bioactivity and production. Current Pharmaceutical Design, 2007, 13(8), 773-791.
  31. Nagai, T.; Nagashima, T.; Abe, A.; Suzuki, N. Antioxidative activities and angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibition of extracts prepared from chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) cartilage and skin. International Journal of Food Properties, 2006, 9, 813-822.
  32. Fahmi, A.; Morimura, S.; Guo, H. C.; Shigematsu, T.; Kida, K.; Uemura, Y. Production of angiotensin I converting enzyme inhibitory peptides from sea bream scales. Process Biochemistry, 2004, 39(10), 1195-1200.
  33. Wang, L.; An, X.X.; Yang, F.M.; Xin, Z.H.; Zhao, L.Y.; Hu, Q.H. Isolation and characterisation of collagens from the skin, scale and bone of deep-sea redfish (Sebastes mentella). Food Chemistry, 2008, 108, 616-623.