Medical Research Report
The roles of Salmon Peptide Extract used in Top Pet Pro (Top Indulgence) in the health of integumentary system and as an antioxidant in Mammals
- by Dr. Marcel Gisain
Salmon fish in the family of Salmonidae are native to tributaries of North and Pacific Ocean. Among the salmon species, the salmon in Pacific Ocean such as chum salmon have been widely studied and used commercially in the form of peptide extract especially collagen peptide, which has been found to enhance the skin’s wound healing, hydration, and elasticity, and show protective effect against skin aging as well as being antioxidant. This article will review the roles of salmon peptide extract. Online literature searches were performed to identify studies on salmon peptide extract such as collagen peptide.
The integumentary system like skin represents 25% from overall weight of a newborn puppy and up to 12% of the total weight of adult dogs (1). In the skin, one of the major structural protein is the collagen. The collagen family consists of 28 different proteins (2)(3), which account for 25% – 35% of the total protein mass in mammals and play a pivotal role in the structure of several tissues, such as skin and bones, providing rigidity and integrity (4)(5). This review article will highlight the findings of previous studies on the roles of salmon peptide extract especially collagen peptide in the health of integumentary system and as an antioxidant in mammals.
Effects in health of integumentary system
Researchers have found that marine proteins contain a lot of specific and potent bioactive peptides (6) with biological or nutritional properties that can improve the functioning of an organism’s body as well as enhance food quality (7).
These peptides have been isolated from various parts of fish including the muscles (8) and fish processing wastes like the viscera, frames and skin (9).
With respect to marine collagen peptides effects, many publications demonstrate their significance in wound healing when orally administered in animal models that are subjected to full-thickness skin wounds by excision (10) (11) (12) . To investigate collagen peptides, they are radioactive labeled and have demonstrated that the absorbed peptides reach the skin (13) and are retained in the tissue for up to 2 weeks. (14). Previous studies also show that daily collagen peptide supplementation improved skin hydration and elasticity (15).
Other experimental studies also found that marine collagen peptides might improve collagen synthesis and maturation by inducing the expression of transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF-β1) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) Wang et al. (11).
Collagen peptides were shown to increase hyaluronic acid production in dermal fibroblasts (16) (17) and improve skin barrier function by increasing the water content of the stratum corneum (16) (18) (19).
Moreover, collagen peptides are found to induce the synthesis of collagen on the mRNA and protein level (20)(21) as well as the production of stronger collagen fibrils (22) promote growth of skin fibroblasts (23) and induce fibroblast migration (24)(25).
From mechanistic point of view, the oral intake of marine collagen peptides stimulated the synthesis of extracellular matrix (ECM) macromolecules such as endogenous collagen, by upregulating gene expression of several collagen-modifying enzymes involved in posttranslational collagen modification and cross-linking (26).
Previous study has also revealed the protective effect of 90 days oral ingestion of marine collagen hydrolysate from Chum Salmon on D-galactose induced rapid intrinsic skin aging in mice (27).
In addition, collagen peptides were demonstrated in in vitro studies to function as chemotactic stimuli for fibroblasts to trigger the synthesis of new collagen fibers as well as the extracellular matrix reorganization in a protein specific manner (28) (29).
As an antioxidant
Previous study has found that marine peptide has antioxidant properties (30). Fish wastes such as scales and viscera were identified by researchers as good sources of bioactive properties especially antioxidant properties (31) (32).
Generally, the ability of a peptide to stabilize free radicals is due to its ability to donate electrons to the free radical or absorb the free radicals electron in order to reduce its reactivity. Peptides rich in histidine, cysteine and methionine have been proposed as effective free radical scavengers (33).
Some properties exhibited or expressed by bioactive peptides include antioxidant properties (31), antihypertensive or enzyme inhibitory properties (34), antimicrobial (35) and cholesterol lowering properties (36).
The role of antioxidants in lowering the risk of cancers, hypertension, coronary heart diseases, inflammation, and also aging has found relevant use in nutrition and medicine(9) (32).
This application is due to the ability of antioxidants to reduce cell damage caused by highly reactive species within the human body (37).
Found to be beneficial to humans in the integumentary system and as an antioxidant, salmon peptide extract is a nutraceutical product that also offers the same benefits to human’s animal companions such as dogs and cats. Top Pet Pro’s formulations are based on this ingredient to help the main consumer of this brand acquire healthy coat and skin and excellent health condition.
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